Directorate of Archaeology, Archives and Museums

Government of Madhya Pradesh


Exploration is a medium that reveals the ancient sites and also reveals the historical potential of the region. The excavation of an archaeological site yields its cultural sequence. The systematic classification of layers, enable the correct dating of antiquities and delineation of the various phases of activities at the site. After excavating these layers on the basis of principles of stratigraphy the artifacts throw light on the antiquity and development of the cultures at the site. The layers laid down as per the order of superimposition are largely formed on the basis of environmental inputs, which help in their differentiation into separate units. In later cultures the input of man made materials like potsherds, brickbats, ash, etc. from larger part of some layers help in their easier differentiation.

The protohistoric period in Madhya Pradesh is represented by the Chaloclithic Cultures. During this period man’s source of sustenance was dependent on agriculture.Unlike the earlier periods when stones were the main medium of making tools, now he learnt to make tools of copper, besides also using stone tools. The archaeological remains of this culture were obtained from Besnagar, Mandsaur, Kayatha, Maheshwar, Navdatoli, Modi, Awra, Eran, Nagda, Pipliyalorka, Azadnagar, and Dangwada. The archaeological excavations conducted at these sites provide a glimpse to the ancient life in the region.

The artifacts recovered from the Chalcolithic sites of Madhya Pradesh gives a glimpse of the Chalcolithic cultures of the region.